The word ‘personal’ means belonging to a particular person. Similarly, personal pronouns are used in place of those specific nouns which are person, thing, or group. Personal pronouns help in avoiding the repetition of names of a person or thing which is already mentioned before.
- Garima wants to learn to dance. So, Garima is searching for a good dance teacher.
- Garima wants to learn to dance. So, she is searching for a good dance teacher.
(here Garima is the noun which is the name of a person. And pronoun she is used to replace Garima)
- This is an exceptionally beautiful sight. Everyone feels blessed to witness the sight.
- This is an exceptionally beautiful sight. Everyone feels blessed to witness it.
(here sight is a noun which is a noun living thing and thus is replaced with it.)
- Jacksons are popular. Jacksons are often in news.
- Jacksons are popular. They are often in news.
(here the noun talked about is a group of people referred by their last name Jacksons. ‘They’ is used to replace this noun and to avoid the repetition.)
Personal pronouns vary depending on the gender of noun, the person of noun, noun number, and the case of noun. Let us look at the following table to understand this better.
|PERSON||SUBJECTIVE CASE||OBJECTIVE CASE||POSSESSIVE CASE|
He, She, It
Him, Her, It
His, Her, Hers, Its
The above table mentions all the personal pronouns. In order to use them correctly, we need to know their dependence on the gender of noun, the person of noun, noun number, and case of noun.
Ø Classification of Personal Pronouns on the bases of GENDER→
We know that nouns have four genders: masculine, feminine, common, and neuter.
Now when a pronoun replaces a noun, the gender of the noun is also considered. Thus, pronouns also have these four genders and are used accordingly.
Pronouns I, We, Me, Us, Mine, My, Our and Ours (pronouns of first person) are gender independent as they are used by every individual for their own self.
Similarly, You, Your and Yours (pronouns of second person) are also independent of gender as these are used for anyone who is a listener or speaker’s audience.
Ø Classification of Personal Pronoun on the bases of PERSON→
Before learning the dependence of pronoun on person, let us understand what Person in English grammar is.
Till the time we deal with nouns, subject and object can be easily distinguished as nouns are unique. But when we want to replace these nouns with pronouns, we find that for all innumerable unique nouns we have only handful of pronouns. Thus, to distinguish subject and object we need person in grammar
Also, like nouns and pronouns, verbs to have dependence on Person. A verb should agree with the number and person of its subject.
Grammar had three Person: First, Second and Third.
First Person: First person is the speaker. It is usually us when we talk about ourselves. Pronouns of first person are I, We, Me, Us, My, Mine, Our and Ours.
- Mathew said, ” I am scared of dark.”
(here I is used to replace noun Mathew, who is the speaker and is talking about himself. Thus, he is first person and so, we have used a first person pronoun.)
- John said, ”The teacher has asked me to organize the quiz.”
(here me is used to replace noun John, who is the speaker and is talking about the work given to him. Thus, he is first person and so, we have used a first person pronoun.)
Second Person: Second person is the listener or the addressee or to whom the speaker is talking to. Pronouns of first person are You, Your and Yours.
- Mathew said to Sammy , ” You should complete your graduation.”
(here You is used to replace noun Sammy, who is the listener. He is the audience to Mathew. Thus, he is second person and so, we have used a second person pronoun.)
- John said to Chris, ”The teacher has asked you to organize the quiz.”
(here You is used to replace noun Chris, who is the listener. He is the audience to John. Thus, he is second person and so, we have used a second person pronoun.)
Third Person: Third person is the one other than the speaker and listener. It is usually the person who is being talked about by the speaker. Pronouns of third person are He, She, It, Its, His, Her, Him, Hers, They, Them, Their and Theirs.
- Mathew said to Sammy , ” Cassy is my sister and she loves to paint.”
(here she is used to replace noun Cassy, who is the neither the speaker nor the listener. She is the person about whom the speaker is talking. Thus, she is third person and so, we have used a third person pronoun.)
- John said, ”They has asked me to organize the quiz.”
(here John is the speaker and the listener is unknown. John is talking about some other people other than him and the listener. Thus, those people are third person and we use They as a pronoun.)
Ø Classification of Personal Pronoun on the bases of CASE→
We are familiar with cases of nouns. Similarly, pronouns also have cases. To replace a noun with a pronoun we need to use a pronoun of correct case. If, the noun is in subjective case than only a pronoun of subjective case to replace it. Similarly, for rest of the cases.
Pronoun of SUBJECTIVE case:
When a noun or a pronoun behaves as the subject of a verb in a sentence, it is said to be in nominative or subjective case.
Singular: I, You, He, She, It Plural: We, You, They
- Anita has mastered the art of cooking.
- She has mastered the art of cooking.
(Noun Anita in the first sentence is the subject of the sentence. Anita is the doer of the action. Also, Anita is a feminine noun and singular. Hence, to replace it we need a singular pronoun of subjective case and feminine gender which is She.)
- Mohan’s friends have organized a surprise birthday party for him.
- They have organized a surprise birthday party for him.
(here noun Mohan’s friends in the first sentence is the subject of the sentence. The verb of organization is done by Mohan’s friends. Also, Mohan’s friends is a common gender and plural. Hence, we use a plural pronoun of subjective case and common gender, They)
- Taj Mahal is one of the seven wonders of the world.
- It is one of the seven wonders of the world.
(Taj Mahal is singular and belongs to neuter gender. In the first sentence it is the subject. Thus, It is used to replace it which is singular, subjective and of neuter gender.)
Pronoun of OBJECTIVE case:
Singular: Me, You, Him, Her, It Plural: Us, You, Them
- Gupta has promoted Krishna to the post of project manager.
- Gupta has promoted him to the post of project manager.
(Krishna is the object in this sentence and experiences the verb promoted. Hence, Krishna is in objective case. To replace it with a pronoun we need a singular masculine pronoun of objective case which is him.)
- The shopkeeper gave the children, complementary candies.
- The shopkeeper gave them, complementary candies.
(Children are the indirect object in this sentence and experiences the verb gave second, after candies which are direct object. Hence, children are in objective case. To replace it with a pronoun we need a plural pronoun of common gender and objective case which is them.)
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION-
- Should we talk to Reena about this problem?
- Should we talk to her about this problem?
(Reena is the object of the preposition to in this sentence. Hence, Reena is in objective case. To replace it with a pronoun we need a singular feminine pronoun of objective case which is her.)
Pronoun of POSSESSIVE case:
When a noun or pronoun shows its possession or authority over something it is said to be in possessive case. Possessive case of pronoun has two forms, namely: Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives. Possessive adjectives are sometimes also known as Pronominal Adjectives.
|PERSON||POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS||POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES|
Possessive Pronouns behave purely like pronouns, they replace nouns. But Possessive Adjectives act like both pronouns and adjectives. They replace a noun and also qualify another noun. Like adjectives, possessive adjectives are used just before nouns they qualify.
- This problem is yours. (Possessive Pronoun)
- This is your (Possessive Adjective)
- The cafe at the end of the street is their favorite place. (Possessive Pronoun)
- The cafe at the end of the street is the favorite place of theirs. (Possessive Adjective)
- This is our Nation and we are its proud citizens. (Possessive Pronoun)
- This nation is ours and we are proud citizens of its. (Possessive Adjective)
Ø Pronoun classification on the bases of NUMBER→
We have already seen in the top tables that personal pronouns have both singular and plural form depending on the case and person. So, we replace a noun with the pronoun depending on its case, gender, person and also number.
Singular: I, Me, My, Mine, You, Your, Yours, He, She, It, Him, Her, Hers, His, Its
Plural: We, Our, Us, Ours, You, Your, Yours, They, Them, Their, Theirs.
Where to use Pronoun IT ?
→ For things without life:
Nouns that are lifeless or noun that belongs to neuter gender are replaced using pronoun ‘it’.
- Court has passed a new privacy law. It was really the need of the hour.
- My nephew broke the flower vase. It was an antique.
- She sold her old car as it was just standing in her parking lot for years.
→ For animals when we do not clearly specify their gender:
When someone specifically talks with reference to the gender of an animal, they use gender specific personal pronouns. But when an animal is referred in general, we use personal pronoun ‘it’ which is used for neuter gender.
- We found a tiny cat crying in our backyard, it was all wet in the rain.
- That is her favorite horse to ride on, it is very strong.
- Our dog crashed into the car and hit its
→ For young child or babies when we do not specify their gender:
- The child started crying, it is scared of the clown.
- Her baby is sick, it caught cold.
→ Used as OBJECT to refer to an already stated action or information (to refer to previous sentence):
Many times, we state something, usually an action or information. And then we wish to restate the same action or information later to some other person. We can use ‘it’ for the phrase talking about that information to avoid repetition.
- Lilly spilt the milk and she is sorry about it.
- I told my mother about the theft, but she already knew it.
- Don’t call him now, we have already discussed it.
→ Used as temporary SUBJECT in passive sentences when real subject follows:
- It was appreciated that the entire nation stood together in the atrocity.
- It is advised to exercise daily.
- It is easy to blame others.
→ Used before a NOUN or PRONOUN to emphasis on it:
Sometimes, we want to emphasis or highlight the noun or pronoun. This is done by adding ‘it’ followed by a to be verb and that noun or pronoun.
- It was I who called you.
- It was in Mumbai, where the event took place.
- It is he who won the championship twice.
→Used as SUBJECT of Impersonal Verbs:
Impersonal Verbs is the verb that has no definite subject. For these verbs subject is not explicit though the subject is quite comprehensible. For such verbs ‘it’ is used as subject and here it is known as Impersonal Pronoun.
- It is extremely hot today. (the weather)
- It rained quite heavily. (the rain rained heavily)
- It is 12 o’clock in the afternoon. (the time is 12 o’clock)
Where to use Pronoun YOU ?
You is used in second person, both for subjective and objective case and for both singular and plural noun. This might create a bit of confusion. Also remember, ‘you’ always takes a plural verb irrespective of being used for singular or plural noun.
- You must inform this to our boss. (subjective case – singular)
- Sam and Ricky, you are called by the principal. (subjective case – plural)
- He has always considered you his best friend. (objective case – singular)
Sometimes, You is used in general sense to refer to everyone. These are sentences where we make announcements or state rules.
- The meeting will start at 10:30am, so you should reach office by 10am. (this statement is for the entire staff in general sense)
- You should not talk in library. (this is a general rule for everyone)
→ When we want to make a general statement for everyone (third person) and the gender is not known:
In this case we have three ways to write the sentence. Either we can refer to both genders using conjunction ‘or’. Or else, we can use the masculine gender which in this case refers to both men and women. Or we can use neuter gender ‘they’.
- Inform the students, he or she must attend the seminar tomorrow.
- Inform the students, he must attend the seminar tomorrow.
- Inform the students, they must attend the seminar tomorrow.
- Personal pronouns are used for particular individuals, things or groups.
- They depend on gender of noun, person of noun, noun number and case of noun.
- . Possessive case of pronoun has two forms, namely: Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives.
- Pronoun ‘It’ is used for non-living things or neuter gender. Its is also known as Impersonal Pronoun.